Special Assessment: Definition, Meaning and How it Works (Updated)

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We know there is a question rolling over your mind, that urge that comes with wanting to know what a special assessment is.

As a homeowner, you may not realize that in addition to regular taxes, you may have to pay a special assessment tax.

Have you been considering the question, “What is a special assessment?”

Great question! Let’s clear it all up and explore the details.

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What is a Special Assessment?

Special assessments are levies that are not based on your home’s taxable value.

Special assessments may appear on your property tax bills at a millage rate of 0.0000 or none at all.

However, If you have any questions about special assessments in your region, contact the assessor’s office in your city/township/village.

Which Organizations Impose Special Assessments?

Special assessments are mostly levied by state and municipal governments.

Owners of condominiums, townhouses, or other properties governed by a homeowners’ or condominium owners’ association (HOA) or condominium owners’ association (COA) may, nevertheless, be liable to special assessments decided by the board of directors to pay particular public projects.

State civil codes require HOAs to include fees for special and routine assessments in their governing agreements, often known as “covenants, conditions, and limitations” (CC&Rs).

However, (Lenders may also include evaluations in the selling contract) HOA special assessments can support community development initiatives such as the construction of new common spaces or landscaping, as well as unanticipated repairs caused by natural catastrophes that monthly dues do not cover.

Because of its unpredictability, HOA special assessments can be contentious because they add to the list of additional expenditures and fees connected with living in such a community.

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Types of Special Assessments

Special Improvement District (SID)

A Special Improvement District is the most basic type of special assessment.

These are regions where additional fees and/or taxes are collected to finance particular projects in the area.

Each state differs slightly, but in general, property owners inside the district must band together and petition the local government to establish the district.

Business Improvement District (BID)

A Business Improvement District is an area that imposes an extra tax on top of current taxes to pay for improvements to the region.

BIDs, as the name suggests, are often made in business-heavy areas of towns to boost commercial activity by supporting improvements in the district.

They also often operate as autonomous non-profits rather than government institutions.

Transportation Improvement District (TID)

Transportation Improvement Districts are areas where property owners pay additional taxes to finance public transportation initiatives.

These transportation projects frequently increase the value of surrounding homes, prompting property owners to pay the assessment to support the benefit of public transportation upgrades.

Neighborhood Improvement District (NID)

A Neighborhood Improvement District is a zone that collects state and local taxes and utilizes the funds to finance local development.

The legislation enabling these districts differs by state, but they routinely pay the debt on bonds issued to support improvements inside the zone.

These zones are frequently made in densely populated or historically significant areas.

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Examples of Special Assessment

There are many examples of special assessments. This would include the following:

1. Infrastructure

Water and sewer line construction, street, road, and sidewalk paving, recycling, and water management are all examples of public improvements that can be funded by special assessment fees.

2. Mello-Roos

The Mello-Roos special assessment district was established in California to fund infrastructure projects.

To finance the project, a county or city issues bonds, and the property owners in the district that would benefit pay the bond debt as a tax.

3. Nuisance abatement

Special assessments may be used to pay nuisance abatements, such as the use of zoning, construction and fire rules, and other methods to enhance a community’s quality of life and safety problems.

4. Public property

Buildings and buildings, such as malls, courtyards, and plazas accessible to the public, as well as pedestrian skyways and concourses, may be deemed special assessments.

 5. Public safety

Fire and police protection and systems may qualify for special evaluations on occasion.

 6. Recreational and improved areas

Recreational locations such as parks, trails, playgrounds, playing fields, skateboard parks, and open spaces may be considered for special evaluation.

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How Special Assessments Work

Special assessments for residential areas outside of HOA communities work in the following manner:

A government agency assigns a special assessment district: Cities, counties, and other state and local government bodies create “special assessment districts” in specified neighborhoods or parts of a municipality to assist pay for the capital improvement cost of certain public improvement projects.

The assignment is based on whether a property will benefit directly or indirectly from the improvement.

Schools, parks, and administrative buildings inside the assessment district are exempt from assessment. 

The agency drafts a resolution: The agency that wishes to construct the assessment district passes a resolution of intent, which outlines the district’s name, the planned improvement, and the time and date for a public hearing on the assessment district.

As part of the assessment process, the government sends votes to every property owner in the proposed district and demands an engineer’s report.

The agency calls a public hearing: Property owners attend a public hearing where an engineer’s report is presented to the county board, city council, or agency legislative body.

The report contains an evaluation of public improvements as well as the property tax rate that the agency will charge each property owner.

Complete ballots will be set out by property owners. If the proposal receives a majority vote, the agency will create an assessment district.

However, the government permits taxpayers to contest the assessment within a certain time limit and, if required, seek legal counsel.

Taxes are gotten: The government will subsequently attach a special tax in the form of a lien with a fair interest rate to each house or property tax payment.

Failure to pay the tax may result in an attempt by the agency to launch foreclosure proceedings on the lien.

What are the Potential Advantages and
Disadvantages of Special Assessments?

As discussed in recent value capture research reports, the potential advantages and disadvantages of special assessments include:


  • To the degree that some public initiatives convey demonstrable advantages solely to benefiting properties, funding such projects equally from all taxpayers may be inequitable. Specific assessments can increase financing fairness by requiring property owners who receive a special and direct benefit to contribute their fair share.
  • Special assessments are simple to collect since the property tax collection system is already in place.


  • The establishment of a SAD will most likely focus the attention of property owners within the district’s boundaries on a planned project and its related expenses. This may result in political resistance to the project. However, reaching out to impacted property owners before creating a SAD may lessen the risk of this happening.

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What Types of Infrastructure Projects could
Special Assessments Support?

You can see the answer in the state act that allows the establishment of special assessments and special assessment districts.

However, special evaluations are only available for projects that provide a specific benefit within a specific geographic region.

Less complex improvements, such as water and sewer hookups, curb cuts, and first-time street and sidewalk paving, may include a one-time charge assessed to neighboring benefitting properties.

A more difficult project would be the construction of a municipal parking structure. It may be thought to assist business properties around a particular radius of the garage.

This distance would define the SAD’s borders. Noncommercial properties inside that area, on the other hand, maybe exempted if it is found that they would not profit from the garage.

In such a case, the fees will be weighed by sharing the garage’s benefits (or expenses) among the SAD’s recognized commercial properties in line with the standards stated in the SAD’s applicable law.

What is a Special Assessment Tax?

A special assessment tax is a tax levied on property owners to pay specific local public works projects like road construction or maintenance.

The tax is only levied on property owners in the community who would benefit from the initiative. That area is known as the special assessment district.

Prospective homebuyers should be informed of any assessment taxes that may apply to a property they are contemplating purchasing.

Special assessments can be imposed for a specific number of years and are frequently not tax-deductible.

Like property taxes, assessment taxes are based on the assessed value of the home.

What is a Special Assessment in Real Estate?

When you purchase a house in an HOA-managed neighborhood, you will have signed contracts and agreed to obey their bylaws.

Furthermore, if the HOA board determines that repairs are required, residents may well be made to pay an additional fee.

A property owner will sign governing documents that explain how assessment fees will work when needed.

The homeowners association should have a reserve fund to cover repair bills, but it doesn’t always work out that way.

If repairs are essential that exceed the amount available in the reserve account, an HOA special assessment could well be issued.

If the HOA is not done correctly, they get to ask the homeowners for additional funds.

Natural disasters, such as the previously described storm damage to houses, can sometimes cause an emergency.

If, for example, a hurricane damaged the clubhouse roof, the condo association would need to pay for it.

These costs can eventually be paid to unit owners in the form of a special charge.

Unexpected costs are not that uncommon when buying a condo.

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Special Assessment Condo

Do you have a condo and are wondering about the ins and outs of special assessments?

A special assessment in a condo is basically a cash call. It is essential once the condominium company does not have adequate funds for operations or specific initiatives.

To levy a special assessment on condos, the board sends out letters to the owners with the details and purpose of the dues.

Condo owners, on the contrary, must pay the special assessment because they are seen as shareholders in the property.

If the owner’s unit is for sale, a special assessment must be made before it is sold.

The seller should cover any payables until the day of possession, and anything after that is to be paid by the buyer.

Condo Insurance

When shopping for condo insurance, search for one that includes special assessment fees.

However, not every insurance is the same. You must carefully check the contract to ensure that everything is in line with your requirements.

Reserve Fund Study

A reserve fund is a collection of money held in an account. There are no defined rules or amounts for reserve money to be deemed healthy because they vary from project to project.

They will have quite different demands, whether you have a building with an elevator, basement parking, or if it was a rental that was transformed into a condo.

Because reserve funds are difficult, the condo board must perform a reserve fund study and adopt the suggestions.

Reserve fund studies are expert assessments that analyze all elements of a condo.

This is done to assess how long a condo will endure when major repairs will be done, and how long the money will be able to be sustained.

Occasionally, the studies express a unique assessment for a specific year, so there is openness ahead of time.

However, there are situations when following the reserve fund research may not make sense.

This year, for example, timber is especially costly; even basic work like rebuilding decks will cost a fortune.

It’s advisable to put the project on hold and publish a special evaluation in the future years.

When to Expect Special Assessments

The condo board meeting minutes tell a wonderful narrative. They provide information about how things are regulated and how a certain evaluation is being evaluated.

As a result, condo owners must get the most recent minutes in order to keep current.

However, some management teams meet once a month, while others meet once every three months.

However, despite the fact that meetings are curtailed during the epidemic, the board is nevertheless mandated to record its decisions.

In July, Rebecca Hewitt completed a document review for a customer. She asked for a copy of the meeting minutes for the previous 12 months, but all she got was through January 2021.

There was a particular assessment within a week of her client moving in. They were unaware since the minutes shared with her were incomplete.

When her client went on the owner’s portal, she saw a section talking about a special assessment. Thankfully, it was only $1,000, and she could absorb it.

Special assessments might be frightening for some people. Special assessments are acceptable to others since they increase the value of their property.

To determine how a special assessment should be made, always check the most recent meeting minutes, audited financials, and reserve fund research.

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Maintenance Cost

To maintain any property, money is necessary. It makes no difference what style of property you own; as long as you are investing in a well-run and well-managed organization, you will be ok.

Condo fees and special charges are how a condo company and a corporation fund repairs.

Some businesses grow condo fees like crazy and never have special assessments. However, this reduces the property’s value.

Special Assessment Lien

When a property has the potential to benefit from a public project, the municipality may levy charges against it.

It is, however, known as special assessment liens. Special assessments are normally levied by public governing bodies for projects such as infrastructure upgrades, but homeowner’s associations and other private groups can also impose special assessment fees.

While some counties may include special assessments on the non-ad valorem tax line of a property’s bill, this is not a common practice.

If your county has levied assessment tax liens on a property you wish to buy but hasn’t included them on any invoices, you may be unaware that there is a levy against the property.

What is An HOA Special Assessment?

HOA special assessments are additional, “strange” costs that your HOA board may charge you under specific situations.

The board normally only levies these charges in emergencies, such as when large-scale damage occurs unexpectedly.

Special assessments are acceptable under most HOA restrictive covenants.

This covers all homeowners, not just condominium owners, who live in HOA-governed neighborhoods.

Other HOA Expenses

HOA special assessments are taken in the event of an unexpected disaster such that the community requires extensive repairs, and they differ from standard HOA costs such as regular dues and annual HOA assessments.

Unlike other charges, special assessments typically exceed the HOA’s annual budget – sometimes significantly.

If you reside in an HOA community, you will almost probably be needed to pay special assessments when they occur, even if they are not intended.

How do HOA Special Assessments Work

Homeowners’ association special assessments function similarly to residential assessment districts, except that the HOA’s board, rather than a government body, sets the levy.

However, most HOA boards set aside a percentage of HOA fees in a reserve account or reserve funds to handle big or unexpected expenditures, such as building a new clubhouse or making extensive repairs after an emergency.

If the reserve funds are insufficient to cover such circumstances, either due to a shortage or a budgeting error, the HOA board must levy a special fee on each property owner.

The bylaws, regulations, and limitations of the HOA will describe how they levy these fees; many HOAs need membership approval by a majority of a quorum of members, while others require early notification.

Failure to pay the monthly or annual payments of the special assessment will, however, result in a lien on the property and possible foreclosure.

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The Ins and Outs of HOA Special Assessments

Special assessments are nothing new to any veteran of an HOA community.

They can, however, be perplexing to an outsider or newbie. Why are special assessments necessary when homeowners already pay a monthly assessment to the association?

You must first grasp how an HOA sets its budget before you can appreciate what HOA special assessments are. Every year, the HOA board meets to create an annual budget.

They must budget for the future year’s costs, which will include numerous maintenance services and insurance payments.

They must also set aside a percentage of the revenue for future replacements and repairs in the reserves.

The board will arrive at a final sum the association will need to pay after considering the expenses.

After assessing the expenditures, the board will determine the total amount required to cover them.

This sum will subsequently be divided among all of the families, including board members, resulting in assessments.

Why HOAs Charge Special Assessments?

HOAs can sometimes levy exceptional assessments only in the event of an emergency that demands immediate action and exceeds the initial budget plan for the year – and even then, individuals in the community must normally vote on the assessment before they can pay it.

While HOA special assessments have the ability to cover unanticipated losses caused by natural disasters or other catastrophes, they can also be utilized if your HOA fails to properly budget for the year’s spending and is obliged to pay for anything that costs more than expected.

Necessary Community Projects

As stated previously, HOA special assessments frequently pay for repairs required in the aftermath of natural disasters and other calamities.

Roofs, fences, and other community infrastructure will need to be rebuilt if there is major water damage or a storm or tornado, something the HOA is unlikely to have planned for.

Individual homeowners have no idea how much these repairs will cost them, which may be irritating.

Getting constantly hit with a bill that might cost you hundreds (if not thousands) of dollars is never fun, which is why special assessments are rarely chosen.

Inadequate Reserve Funds

When HOAs construct their annual budgets, they determine how much homeowners will be charged in HOA dues throughout the year.

The fees they choose to collect go toward planned maintenance, projects, running expenditures, and other pertinent community endeavors.

A percentage of the cost charged to residents also goes toward the HOA’s reserve fund, which is effectively a pool of money intended to pay for emergency repairs and other unanticipated needs.

Projects or events may arise that deplete the HOA’s reserve money, necessitating the imposition of special levies to meet the remaining costs.

This may be used to pay for everything from maintenance to a new community pool that ended up costing more than the HOA anticipated.

What to Expect as a Homeowner

As a homeowner, paying for a special assessment, especially a big one, might be difficult if you weren’t prepared to do so.

Here are a few things you should know to be prepared for an unexpected special assessment.

Paying Back Your Special Assessment Charge

When an HOA board votes to charge a special assessment, homeowners must pay it over time.

This is set by the board and is based on a number of variables, including how much is being charged and how fast the project requiring financing must be finished.

If the special assessment does not demand a significant payment from each homeowner, it may be paid in whole and upfront.

If the cost is several hundred (or thousand) dollars per family, the board may divide payments and collect them over the course of a year or more.

There’s no limit to what a special assessment can cost, so what you may owe will depend on the project or circumstance.

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How do HOA Special Assessments Affect Home Buying And Selling?

Paying special assessments can be annoying, but dealing with a neighborhood special assessment when buying or selling a home can be as perplexing.

Because the amount of the assessment varies depending on when you purchase or sell a property, it’s critical to be prepared as both a buyer and seller in an HOA-governed neighborhood.

Real Estate Agents Must Disclose Special Assessments

If a special assessment is currently in place in the HOA area where you are shopping for a home, your real estate agent must disclose that information to you.

Depending on when the special assessment is formally decided and when you as a buyer legally take possession of a property, you may be required to pay for it. This is a piece of critical information to be aware of.

Existing Special Assessments Pass From Seller to Buyer

If a special assessment is decided and given after the buyer formally buys a house, they must now pay for the special assessment, whatever it is.

An anticipated special assessment might so move from seller to buyer in this manner.

However, if a special assessment is done before the buyer legally becomes the owner of the house, the seller is usually obligated to pay the cost rather than passing it on to the buyer – even if the home has been sold.

Special Assessments can Reflect Badly on an HOA

If there is a special assessment in an HOA-governed neighborhood where you want to buy a house, it may frighten you away – and for a good reason.

It’s difficult to tell if an HOA views special assessments as a last resort or as a standard expense.

It makes sense to be concerned about the latter; if an HOA is mismanaging its money and frequently calling for special levies, it might not be a place you want to reside.


Let us know in the comments section how this article has aided you in understanding what a special assessment is and how taxes are gotten.

Is it beneficial to you, or are there better alternatives? Let us know in the comment section.

Frequently Asked Questions on Special Assessment

Can HOA take your house?

In general, an HOA can foreclose on your home if state laws and your HOA’s governing papers allow it. HOA foreclosures are typically caused by a homeowner’s inability to pay assessments and fees.

How do I write a letter to an HOA board?

Begin the letter with a greeting that includes the entire name of the recipient. “Dear Darcy Lane,” for example.

If you’re writing to no one in particular, use “Dear Board Member” instead. There should be one line of space between the address and this welcome.

How do you write a special assessment letter?

Include as many facts as possible, such as the reason(s) for the special assessment- be honest and forthright about why the association has to levy a special assessment instead of utilizing money from the reserve fund.

What is a special assessment in Florida?

The Florida Condominium Act defines special assessments as assessments levied on condominium unit owners that are not required under the association’s yearly budget.

What is the purpose of a special assessment?

A special assessment is a tax levied on real estate to assist fund a local project that benefits the property.

The Minnesota Constitution grants the legislature the ability to authorize the use of special assessments by local governments.


What is the purpose of a special assessment?

A special assessment is a tax levied on real estate to assist fund a local project that benefits the property.

The Minnesota Constitution grants the legislature the ability to authorize the use of special assessments by local governments.

What is a special assessment Florida?

The Florida Condominium Act defines special assessments as assessments levied on condominium unit owners that are not required under the association’s yearly budget.

How do you write a special assessment letter?

Include as many facts as possible, such as the reason(s) for the special assessment- be honest and forthright about why the association has to levy a special assessment instead of utilizing money from the reserve fund.

How do I write a letter to an HOA board?

Begin the letter with a greeting that includes the entire name of the recipient. “Dear Darcy Lane,” for example.

If you’re writing to no one in particular, use “Dear Board Member” instead. There should be one line of space between the address and this welcome.

Can HOA take your house?

In general, an HOA can foreclose on your home if state laws and your HOA’s governing papers allow it. HOA foreclosures are typically caused by a homeowner’s inability to pay assessments and fees.



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